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Friday, May 8, 2015

Atopic dermatitis (Eczema) in children aged 0 to 36 months




Some children are particularly prone to develop skin problems: it is called atopic dermatitis.

Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory disease, genetic base, which is in the form of sprouts. Most characteristic is the intense itching and eczematous appearance of lesions on the skin type. These outbreaks usually improve or even disappear with age but may persist into adulthood.

Atopic dermatitis is not contagious, but a type of skin especially reactive to different agents or situations that the child or adult is exposed. Adults affection professions requiring skin exposure to irritants or to be subjected to very frequent washing of the hands are more likely to have persistent symptoms.

How to suspect that a child has atopic dermatitis?

Repeated problems with skin inflammation usually debut between the 2nd or 3rd month of life, usually during the first five years. Itching or pruritus is the predominant symptom. Eczematous lesions appear on the face (in young infants), hands (when they start touching objects or food), in the fold of the elbow, behind the knees, ankles or wrists or back of the ear hole or earrings. The skin is usually dry, sometimes appearing granites as "goose bumps" in arms and thighs. In summer injuries lighter patches (dartros) may appear. The diagnosis is clinical, no blood tests being necessary.

How to avoid outbreaks of atopic dermatitis?

The most important thing is to keep the skin well hydrated and avoiding irritants

Hygiene and body care atopic skin

For daily skin care simply follow some rules:

    
Do not use soap for daily hygiene, with only enough water. In the dirtiest areas: (genitals, feet and areas of friction) a preparation based on oats or cleaner "without soap" will prevent the aggression of the skin. It is used sparingly and always just before leaving the bath.
    
Sponges or mittens should be avoided.
    
Bath-adding an emollient bath oil into the water at about 32-33º C is preferable to the shower, as it softens the skin, soothes irritation and moisturizes the skin by increasing its flexibility.
    
We must not rub dry, keeping some moisture, immediately apply a moisturizer that loción- -best in generous quantities. For severe dryness moisturizer can be applied twice daily.
    
Nails should always be well short and clean to prevent scratching injuries.
General recommendations

The patient with atopic dermatitis should follow a series of recommendations that are fundamental to the control of the disease, with consequent improvement in their symptoms:

    
Try to identify and avoid possible triggers in each case: dry skin, stress, irritants (some synthetics, pool chlorine, acidic foods like tomato sauce), infections (infections should be suspected if the skin on weeps or shows Yellow) scabs, sweat.
    
Do not wear tight-fitting, rough or irritating clothing (wool, synthetic fabrics, leather, animal hair). The best clothing is cotton, especially for indoor, socks and pajamas clothes.
    
Avoid excessive warm, especially at night.
    
Clothes should be washed with a mild detergent, avoiding excessive use of softeners, being fundamental a good rinse.
    
If there are foot injuries is advisable to use shoes that promote perspiration or avoid those made with synthetic materials (synthetic indoor sports, especially during the summer, sneakers or shoes with rubber soles in direct contact with the skin).
    
Avoid the presence of domestic animals (dogs, cats, birds) and bedding with feathers.
    
Avoid excessive exposure to house dust, because it contains microscopic insects (mites), which could aggravate eczema.
    
As for food, generally there is no specific regime, unless there is suggestive of food allergy, it must be ruled by allergy tests. The most allergenic foods are eggs, milk, nuts, soy, wheat and seafood.


Medical treatment

It should always be supervised by your pediatrician or dermatologist. Cortisone creams are the mainstay of treatment for eczema outbreaks. There are different power preparations, so that each case must be individualized according to the severity. Antibiotics, antihistamines, or wet compresses are also useful at times as well as new immunomodulators in the most rebellious cases.

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT THIS TOPIC:

1. My child has eczema, what creams you can put?

The most important thing is the daily hydration and moisturizing body creams greasing (better than milk or lotions) type. If the skin is very dry, it should be applied morning and night. Should be very swollen bud creams or ointments specific used under medical supervision, as they usually have cortisone or its derivatives in their composition, before moisturizer.


2. My daughter has been diagnosed with atopic dermatitis, it will last long?

This type of dermatitis symptoms usually begin in 2 or 3 months of age and usually lasts up to five years, but may persist into adulthood with generally milder forms.


3. Why did you leave my son eczema? Otherwise it is very healthy and I think they take good care ...

Eczema are the result of an inflammation of the skin, although its cause is not well understood. They usually appear in some people are susceptible to certain allergies, what is called "atopic constitution." There are often other family members prone to skin allergies or respiratory type (rhinitis, conjunctivitis or asthma). The dry skin, stress, some irritants, infections or sweat itself can be triggers and cause an outbreak of eczema.









4. My child has eczema. When a baby was coming out on the face and hands. Now 18 months, has more legs. Can you go anywhere in the body?

In infants usually starts on the face and spread to any part of the body. When they begin to manipulate objects, it can also appear on the hands. In older children the main locations are often the folds of the elbow, behind the knees, wrists, ankles, behind the ear and around the opening of the earrings.


5. My baby has eczema and no improvement but have tried many creams. Is not allergic to anything?

The child may be allergic to any food, dust or pollen, dog or cat hair or other animal, but not all patients with atopic eczema have an allergic basis. To prove it is convenient to perform skin tests to different allergens by a specialist in pediatric allergy. Check with your pediatrician.


6. My child has atopic skin. Do I have to bathe every day?

You can bathe your child every day, while avoiding drying. Daily bathing with body oil not hot water (less than 33 ° C), can help soften skin and soothe irritation, preventing dryness. After bathing, apply to slightly damp skin moisturizer (body lotion or better than milk).


7. For the daily hygiene of my child with eczema, should I use a special soap?

It is best to not use any soap, just water. If there is dirty areas oatmeal or gel cleansers "without soap," available in pharmacies, in small quantities and just before leaving the bath is recommended. oil to bath water can be added, taking precautions to prevent the child from slipping in the bathtub or shower, a cause.


8. Eczema is an infection? How I can avoid infection and I am very worried because my husband has a foot fungus?

Infection rarely causes eczema. Unlike skin with atopic eczema it can sobreinfectar more easily than non-atopic skin, often due to scratching with dirty hands or long fingernails. In this case the skin has yellow oozing or crusting. Your husband should not share towels, slippers and bath mats with the other members of the family and must apply a specific antifungal product prescribed by a dermatologist.


9. An infant suffering from atopic skin, can go to the beach and pool?

You can go, but it is more advisable to swim in sea water in the pools, especially if the water contains chlorine which dries the skin much. After bathing, apply moisturizer liberally (which can also be cream with sun protection factor suitable for atopic) shall work to soften skin and prevent drying out excessively.


10. My baby has eczema. Can it be that much resentment? What I can give?

It is characteristic of eczema or atopic dermatitis its recurrent and intense itching during outbreaks. The babies are irritable and rub against the bedclothes. The older ones can cause injury or bleeding from scratching. Hydration or the combined use of cortisone creams typically reduce itching. No child should entertain too much and wear cotton clothing, spacious and comfortable. In some cases, an antihistamine may be useful under medical supervision.


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